According to Adam Smith, the division of labor intensified the scale of barter transactions and ultimately led to the growth of money (1776, Book 1, 81 ff). The transition from barter to money (even commodity money) thus signaled the progression from a natural economic framework to a monetary economy. Yet the “paradigm of the savage devoted to bartering” and the primary use of barter have been strongly challenged by Karl Polanyi for whom “barter, payment in kind, and exchange constitute a principle of economic behavior that depends on the market model to be effective” (Polanyi 1944). Even Fernand Braudel pointed out the existence of barter “at the heart of monetary economies” (1967, 338). More recent scholarship by historians and anthropologists such as David Graeber (2011) has also worked to dismantle this “barter fable”, by acknowledging that practices represented by barter, payment in kind, and exchange were not necessarily “primitive” nor strictly opposed to the use of money in buying and selling.
The whole Study Weekwill be devoted to the study of the importance and exact place of such alternative trade practices in the economies of the 13th to 18th centuries. If the expression “alternative currencies” has in the past generally referred to monies used as an alternative to national or prevailing multinational monetary systems, we wish here to concentrate attention on payments in kind or commodities and services employed as means of barter in the monetarized economies of the 13th to 18th centuries. Although the monetary theory has focused mainly on credit, the money of account and real money in the form of coins or paper money, a striking feature of the circulation of money is that coins or paper money have not prevented payments in kind, partial or not. While this perspective on barter has been interpreted as evidence of the existence of a world of “scarce money” limited to the countryside and periods of money shortage, or as reflecting the desire of authorities to fix the value of goods, these arguments have been refuted by researchers like Laurence Fontaine (2008), Craig Muldrew (2001), and Jean-Michel Servet (1988; 1994).
Barter has long been considered as a practice adapted to the absence of cash. In this respect, the world of peasants is often seen as the location par excellence for this type of alternative exchange. It would be a mistake, however, to think the practice was limited to rural areas. If we look closely at payment details in many contracts, for example, we can see that bartering or payments in kind were also present in the city. Linking the use of barter-only to the lack of money also overlooks the possibility that bartering may have been a choice since there is no indication that it is always done by default (Humphrey and Hugh-Jones, 1992). The alternative modes of exchange, on which the whole Study Week will focus, go beyond the simple palliative. In each case, we must question the reasons, meanings, and economic consequences in order to understand the specific characteristics of each instance of the use of alternative currencies.
These payments, partly or entirely in kind, are found in all economic activities, whether in production, markets, wages, or consumption.
Production. In contracts, it was not uncommon, for example, for reused raw materials to be included and given a value, whether the materials were the rubble of the previous building or the metal of an old bell that helped to pay for making a new one. Wages. A part of many salaries could be given in food, lodging, clothing, and even tools. Some occupations were accustomed to this kind of remuneration, such as domestic servants who received clothes from their masters on top of food and lodging. In the textile and coal industries, production residues might be passed on to workers. Administrators were also be expected to pay with – and to receive – gifts, creating tensions between gifts and corruption. Services. The aristocratic economy could fuel payments in alternative currencies because so many services were remunerated by gifts: for example, in the Grand Tour, aristocrats carried objects with them to pay for most services. In both rural and urban areas, rents could be paid in labor, transport, or by means of some maintenance work. Exchanges. In the city as in the countryside, a lack of cash could preclude the use of money, but “reciprocal exchanges” (Lambrecht, 2003) could involve partial payments in money, materials, or products.
A better understanding of these practices will help craft a more nuanced economic history in which the essential role of money is balanced by a consideration of “quasi-currencies” (Lopez 1981).
Papers should consider one or more of these questions:
Mechanisms for using alternative currencies
Did barter, payment in kind or in service, reciprocal exchange, etc… entail contemporary, complementary, or competing uses of alternative currencies?
Was the use of an alternative currency linked to a particular economic situation, such as an episode of growth, decline, or economic crisis?
What links did quasi-money have with money? Did these links change according to place, period, or economic conditions?
2. The diffusion of alternative currencies
If we consider the use of quasi-currencies as linked to more than the agricultural world, how can we appreciate their diffusion in the economy of the thirteenth and eighteenth centuries?
Were barter, payment in kind or in service, and reciprocal exchange more widely used in some production sectors than in others?
To what extent were quasi-currencies reserved or limited – generally or depending on the circumstances – to particular types of transactions, such as paying for certain wages, services, real estate, etc…?
3. The nature of alternative currencies
What were quasi-currencies? Beyond the broad categories under which we can classify them, did certain goods, services, debts or claims appear as privileged quasi-currencies?
What were the qualities required by a good or a service to become a quasi-currency?
Were there any differences and changes in the nature of quasi-currencies according to geographical area, types of transactions, times or periods of the year?
4. Uses of alternative currencies a) As a means of exchange, could certain quasi-currencies, like land, also serve as a store of value? Could alternative currencies be used to measure the value or be used as instruments of economic policy? b) Did European penetration in Africa, America, and Asia make the use of alternative currencies more frequent to facilitate the exchange of goods? c) While recent work highlights the link between the share of in-kind compensation and the length of employment, the question of the usefulness of alternative currencies remains open.
Bibliography: Boone, Marc, and Howell, Martha, (eds.), In But Not of the Market. Exchanging Movables in Late Medieval Society and Early Modern Economy, Bruxelles 2007. Braudel, Fernand, Civilisation matérielle, économie et capitalisme XVe-XVIIIe siècle, t. I., Paris, Armand Colin, 1967. Fontaine, Laurence, L’économie morale, pauvreté, crédit et confiance dans l’Europe préindustrielle, Paris, Gallimard, 2008. Graeber, David, Debt: The First 5000 Years, New-York, Melville House, 2011. Humphrey, Caroline, et Hugh-Jones, Stephen, Barter, Exchange, and Value. An Anthropological Approach, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1992. Lambrecht, Thijs, « Reciprocal Exchange, Credit, and Cash: Agricultural Labour Markets and Local In the Southern Low Countries during the Eighteenth Century », Continuity and Change, vol. 18, no 2, 2003, p. 237-261. Lopez, Roberto S., « Discorso introduttivo », in La moneta nell’economia europea. Secoli XIII-XVIII, a cura di Vera Barbagli Bagnoli, Firenze, Le Monnier, 1981, p. 3 (Atti delle « Settimane di studio » e altri convegni 7). Muldrew, Craig, « ‘Hard Food for Midas’. Cash and its Social Value in Early Modern England », Past & Present, no. 170, Febr. 2001, p. 78-120. Polanyi, Karl, The Great Transformation, New York, Farad & Rinehart, 1944. Servet, Jean-Michel, « La fable du troc », Dix-huitième Siècle, n°26, 1994, p. 103-115. Servet, Jean-Michel, « La monnaie contre l’État ou la fable du troc », Droit et monnaie, 1988, p. 49-62. Smith, Adam, An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations, London, W. Strahan; and T. Cadell, 1776. Spufford, Peter, Money and Its Use in Medieval Europe, New York, Cambridge University Press, 1988, p. 382-384.
The selected papers will be presented and discussed at Prato in the course of Study Week 2023. After the discussion at the Study Week sessions, scholars should complete and revise their texts by 30 June 2023. All contributions received by the Institute will be subject to anonymous adjudication before publication.
Call for Papers
Scholars are invited to send their proposals by compiling an abstract that will be reviewed by the Executive Committee.
The paper should represent an original contribution and be either generally comparative or a specific case study that speaks to the larger questions set out here. Participants who are pursuing a PhD, should have completed it before the start of the conference.
Papers proposed by projects or collaborative groups that link scholars from different countries and institutions will be assessed with particular interest if they offer a comparative analysis in geographical or diachronic terms across two or more related research themes. We will also consider innovative session formats for these type of proposals.
The Executive Committee will only take fully completed formats into consideration and will decide by 2022 whether they have been accepted when authors of the selected proposals will be notified. Depending on the Institute’s financial resources, at least 25 scholars will be provided with hospitality at Prato for the Study Week. The Council may also invite up to 20 additional scholars to participate in the project without any right to hospitality or reimbursement.
The Fondazione Datini will award for the Prato conference up to 10 Travel Bursaries to cover travel costs for the conference to the maximum of 250 euros per grant for postdoctoral scholars who do not hold a full-time academic position. Applicants must send the travel bursaries form to the Fondazione Datini with their paper by 10 April 2023. The grant will be paid during the conference on the presentation of travel receipts.
The members of the Executive Committee are: Erik Aerts (Leuven, President), Michael North (Greifswald, Vice-President), Paolo Malanima (Catanzaro, Vice-President), Giampiero Nigro (Florence, Scientific Director), Philippe Bernardi (Paris), Hilario Casado Alonso (Valladolid), Olga Katsiardi-Hering (Athens), Maryanne Kowaleski (New York), Giuseppe Petralia (Pisa), Gaetano Sabatini (Rome Tre).
All submitted contributions must be original and not previously published or translated from previous publications.
The provisional texts of the selected contributions or at least a detailed synthesis must reach the Fondazione Datini (Datini Foundation) by 10 April 2023. They will be made available (with protected access reserved for the participants of the project and members of the Scientific Committee) before the Study Week in order to allow a deeper discussion of their contents. Authors who fail to send their provisional texts to the Fondazione that day, can not be included in the final program. In absence of the author, the synthesis will be read during the conference.
During the week, participants will offer a summary presentation of their contribution lasting 20 minutes. Simultaneous translation from and to Italian and English will be available.
The definitive texts of the paper, revised by the authors following the discussion (maximum 60,000 characters) must be sent to the Institute by 30 June 2023. They will be subject to anonymous adjudication. Texts that pass the assessment stage will be published in a special volume within a year.
For the purpose of publication, texts will be accepted in Italian, French, English, Spanish, and German. Authors who are not writing in their native language are advised to have the language of their text vetted and corrected before submitting their paper for the assessment stage since one of the requirements for publication is that the grammar and writing style meet high academic standards.
As part of the Monete Laboratory project, the meeting is supported by researchers and activists from RetiCS, Lombard Coordination of Time Banks, Co-Energia, Ephemeral, ForumCt, Mi Fido di Noi, RIES (Network Italian Solidarity Economy), School of Political Activation. The objectives pursued are the following:
– spread the knowledge about complementary currency systems, and use them to solve issues related to the environmental sustainability, and governance of public and common goods;
– consider those community and complementary currency systems most suitable to sustain eco-solidarity practices;
– stimulate communication and interaction between the different projects of community and complementary currency systems, local governments, and policymakers.
How to participate
The event can be attended online. Please send an email to laboratoriomonete [at] gmail.com. For info and updates, please check the Facebook page and the RETICS website.
It is our great honor to kindly invite you to the 7th Annual Monetary and Economic Scientific Conference – THE NEW NORMALITY AFTER THE PANDEMIC – AN ECONOMIC PERSPECTIVE which will be hosted by the Monetary and Economic Research Center jointly with the Department of Finance of UNWE and the Economic and Politics Institute on 21 – 22 September 2021 at the University of National and World Economy in Sofia and online. MRC Annual Conference provides an opportunity for fellows and non-fellows of MRC to exchange ideas and to discuss results from economic research. The main panels of the conference will be:
1. Monetary and Financial Economics
2. International Economics and International Political Economy
3. Economic and monetary History and History of Economic Thought
4. Environmental, social, and solidarity economy
5. Management and Marketing
The conference is open to anybody involved in these research areas, including both young and experienced researchers, Ph.D. students, post-doctoral researchers, and professionals from business, government, and non-governmental institutions. Conference papers will be published on the website of MRC and selected papers will be published in a special issue of Economic Alternatives Journal.
If you have any questions or need additional information, please do not hesitate to contact us: email@example.com.
Sander Van Parijs (Muntuit vzw), Diana Kretschmann (Possible Today), Nicolas Franka (Financite), Christian Gelleri (Chiemgauer), and Marek Hudon (ULB) will host a dedicated interactive session on complementary currencies at the European Social Economy Summit 2021.
On the program at 26th of May 10:00 – 13:00:
Who rules the money: the legal challenge of complementary currencies as a social innovation
Complementary currencies are rising in Europe. As many social innovations, they struggle with the legal framework provided by the EU – e.g. E-money directive, public procurement, etc., the variety of translations by its member states, and policies of their own state – e.g. fiscal policy. Through the interactive Open Space Methodology, it will be possible to explore creative solutions and formulate a joint agenda.
There will be break-out rooms on Governance, E-money, Public procurement, and Digital currencies. For inspiration, it will be possible to work with concrete tensions and solutions from the field, while also encouraging reflection on the topics.
Attendance is free, but participants have to register.
Tomaž Fleischman will present his paper, ‘Liquidity-Saving through Obligation-Clearing and Mutual Credit: An Effective Monetary Innovation for SMEs in Times of Crisis’, followed by questions and a general discussion.
Published late last year, this paper demonstrates the remarkable potential for liquidity saving (in straight terms, cashflow improvements) in the context of an SME trading network from two mechanisms – obligation-clearing (continuous multilateral invoice offsetting) and mutual credit (pooled trade credit).
In crude terms, each mechanism alone reduces the need for hard cash to settle invoices by around 25% for a typical participant in the network – and further, they can operate in tandem without diminishing this impact, for a typical 50% reduction in the quantity of cash needed within the network to finance internal trade.
This is not a theoretical result – Tomaž (who works for Slovenian company BE Solutions [http://www.be-solutions.si/]) and his co-authors, Paolo Dini and Giuseppe Littera used Tetris software to analyse a real dataset of over 138,000 transactions from 3199 firms, with a total value of >€31M, to produce these results.
The mechanisms analysed are not theoretical either – the Slovenian state has been operating a continuous clearing system for decades, which have helped that country weather several financial crises. And the Sardex network in Sardinia (from which the data originates) operates a Mutual Credit system that powers ~€50M per year in trade, with no bank-money involved.
We will discuss how these tools – which are well known and routinely used by banks and large corporations – can now be made available for use by SME networks and local community wealth-building initiatives.
At a time of uncertainty about the future and increased precarity in the present, we at RAMICS believe that complementary and community currencies have become and even more relevant tool to build community resilience and hopefully help us transition towards a more sustainable future. So, while the pandemic has forced the bi-annual RAMICS conference to be postponed, we see the need to keep the conversation alive. For this reason, we are organizing an online Round-table on March 5.
The round-table will focus on the question: What ideas, technologies and practices are conducive to the development and institutionalization of complementary currencies? Presenters will be Chikako Nakayama, Manabu Kuwata, Fabienne Pinos, Rolf Schroeder and Marcus Petz. They will help us advance the conversation on ideas, technologies and practices advancing efforts to implement complementary currencies.
University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
Deadline for abstract submission: 6 January 2020
Deadline for full paper submission: 10 June 2020
Organizers:“Alternatives to Capitalism” Research Network in partnership with RAMICS Research Association on Monetary Innovation and Community and Complementary Currency Systems
Chairs and discussants:Giacomo Bazzani (University of Florence), Philipp Degens (University of Hamburg), Dirk Holemans (University of Antwerpen), Mikko Laamanen (Royal Holloway, University of London), Malu Villela (University of Bristol)
For more than two decades now, various forms of complementary currencies emerged all over the world, aiming at “taking back local economies” (North 2014). CCs are commonly understood as media of exchange (Hallsmith/Lietaer 2011) or accounting systems (Fare/Ould- Ahmed 2017) that are used within a particular group of users. Responding to broader debates on our current monetary system, they exemplify how civil society actors offer various attempts from the local to the global level to reconstruct money in order to make it a tool for economic, social, political and/or ecological purposes. In most cases, they tend to be, however, rather small and short-termed.
This panel addresses complementary currency schemes as actors of economic and social change. It particularly aims to identify factors that influence the success and longevity of such schemes. A comparative discussion of different forms and types shall help to explore what internal and external conditions seem to facilitate or hamper success. Related issues might also be discussed, such as the underlying ethics, the modes of economic exchange within the circuits, their contribution to sustainable development and/or resilience.
We, therefore, invite conceptual, theoretical, and empirical contributions from various disciplines (e.g. sociology, economics, anthropology, geography…) that examine (among others):
Organizational structure and modes of governance of the currency scheme
Participation of consumers and/or businesses, including issues of integration and exclusion
Monetary design of the currency (e.g. creation process; links to monetary system etc)
Networks of actors and organizations involved, including municipalities, businesses, and civil society organizations
Values, ethics, and ideologies underlying the scheme
Potential of CCs to contribute to sustainability or resilience
Potential for social change and engagement with disadvantaged communities
Please submit abstracts of no longer than 500 words to giacomo.bazzani (at) unifi.it and philipp.degens (at) uni-hamburg.de by 6 January 2020. Submissions would also need to include 3 key words. Full papers should be submitted by 10 June 2020.
International conference on complementary currencies
Complementary currencies and societal challenges:
Crossing academic and practitioners knowledge/perspectives
Time: 21-22 November, 2019
Venue: Brussels, Belgium
Institutional organizers of the research seminar: the Centre for European Research in Microfinance (CERMi) and the Research Association on Monetary Innovation and Community and Complementary Currency Systems (RAMICS)
The surge of growth of cryptocurrencies and digital money have recently caught the attention of both management scholars and practitioners (Brière et al., 2015; Dodgson et al., 2015; Iansiti & Lakhani, 2017; Lehr & Lamb, 2018; Michelman, 2017; Posnett, 2015; Vergne & Swain, 2017). However, cryptocurrencies are only one of the latest forms of complementary currencies (Blanc, 2016). Before the emergence of cryptocurrencies, complementary currencies were mainly conceived of and issued by citizens, nonprofits, businesses, and even local public administrations, and circulated within a defined geographical region or community (Cohen, 2017; Dissaux & Fare, 2017; Guéorguieva-Bringuier & Ottaviani, 2018; Lietaer, 2001). Also known as local, social, regional and alternative currencies, these complementary currency systems are often developed to respond to societal needs and aspirations that official currencies do not address (Meyer & Hudon, 2017; Fraňková et al., 2017; North, 2007). Specifically, they can be designed to promote sustainable behavior, build community social capital, and foster trade and local development (Blanc & Fare, 2013; Collom, 2007; Gomez & Helmsing, 2008; Marshall & O’Neill, 2018; Seyfang & Longhurst, 2013). For example, inter-enterprise currencies are mainly used in business-to-business networks in order to facilitate the exchange of goods and services between small and medium-sized enterprises (Meyer & Hudon, Forthcoming; Stodder, 2009).
Complementary currencies are socio-economic innovations aiming to address societal challenges of social cohesion, economic inclusion and environmental preservation (Stodder, 2009; Joachain & Klopfert, 2014; Michel & Hudon, 2015, Sanz, 2016). This conference aims to gather researchers and practitioners to explore and debate the potential of complementary currencies for sustainable development and socio-economic resilience (Ulanowicz et al., 2009; Gregory, 2014; Graugaard, 2012). We believe that the topic is one that is predestined for cross-disciplinary research and for thinking beyond established boundaries. We invite conceptual and empirical submissions drawing on a range of theoretical perspectives and diverse methodologies to explore complementary currencies, including researchers working on cryptocurrencies.
The Complementary Currencies and Societal Challenges conference will be held in Brussels, Belgium. The event is designed to include academic and practitioner knowledge and will be organized in two days:
November 21 (evening) – Closing event of (E)change Bruxelles project co-organized with Financité
This social event closes the (E)change Bruxelles action-research project co-organized between the Universite libre de Bruxelles and Financite. It celebrates the emergence of the new Brussels local currency ‘La Zinne’. Researchers participating to the research seminar of the 22nd November are welcome to join this social event, although it is not compulsory.
November 22: A research seminar (in English) on the following 5 themes:
CC and urban resilience
CC and civil society
Technology and CC
CC and entrepreneurship
Ethics and CC
Authors who wish to present their papers at the research seminar should submit electronically a three-page abstract by 01 September 2019 to the following mail address firstname.lastname@example.org (with email@example.com in Cc), specifying to which of the 5 themes they wish to bring their contribution. Abstracts will be selected and authors will be notified and invited by 15 September 2019. A full paper will be due on 01 November 2019.
For questions, please contact Marek Hudon (firstname.lastname@example.org) and Tristan Dissaux (email@example.com).
We are looking forward to welcoming you on this Complementary Currencies and Societal Challenges event!
Blanc, J., Fare, M. 2013. Understanding the role of governments and administrations in the implementation of community and complementary currencies. Annals of Public and Cooperative Economics, 84(1), 63-81.
Blanc, J. 2016. Unpacking monetary complementarity and competition: a conceptual framework. Cambridge Journal of Economics, 41(1), 239-257.
Brière, M., Oosterlinck, K., Szafarz, A. 2015. Virtual currency, tangible return: Portfolio diversification with Bitcoin. Journal of Asset Management, 16(6), 365-373.
Collom, E. 2007. The motivations, engagement, satisfaction, outcomes and demographics of time bank participants: Survey findings from a U.S. system. International Journal of Community Currency Research, 11, 36-83
Dissaux, T, Fare, M. 2017. A collective redefinition of money: The case of the local currency “La Gonette” in Lyon, France. 29th annual SASE conference, Lyon.
Fraňková, E., Fousek, J., Kala, L., Labohý, J. 2014. Transaction network analysis for studying Local Exchange Trading Systems (LETS): Research potentials and limitations. Ecological Economics, 107, 266-275.
Gómez, G.M., Dini, P., 2016. Making sense of a crank case: monetary diversity in Argentina (1999–2003). Cambridge Journal of Economics 40, 1421–1437.
Graugaard, J. D. 2012. A tool for building community resilience? A case study of the Lewes Pound. Local Environment, 17(2), 243-260.
Gregory, L. 2014. Resilience or resistance? Time banking in the age of austerity. Journal of Contemporary European Studies, 22(2), 171-183.
Guéorguieva-Bringuier, L., Ottaviani, F. 2018. Opposition and isomorphism with the neoliberal logic in community exchange systems. Ecological Economics, 149, 88-97.
Gomez, G.M, Helmsing, A.H.J. 2008. Selective spatial closure and local economic development: What do we learn from the argentine local currency systems? World Development, 36(11), 2489-2511
Joachain, H., Klopfert, F. 2014. Smarter than metering? Coupling smart meters and complementary currencies to reinforce the motivation of households for energy savings. Ecological Economics 105, 89-96.
Meyer, C., Hudon, M. (forthcoming). Money and the commons: An investigation of complementary currencies and their ethical implications. Journal of Business Ethics.
Meyer, C., Hudon, M. 2017. Alternative organizations in finance: Commoning in complementary currencies. Organization, 24(5), 629-647.
Michel, A., Hudon, M. 2015. Community currencies and sustainable development: A systematic review. Ecological Economics, 116, pp. 160–171.
Marshall, A. P., O’Neill, D. W. 2018. The Bristol Pound: A tool for localisation?. Ecological Economics, 146, 273-281.
Sanz, E. O. 2016. Community currency (CCs) in Spain: An empirical study of their social effects. Ecological Economics, 121, 20-27.
Stodder, J. 2009. Complementary credit networks and macro-economic stability: Switzerland’s Wirtschaftsring. Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, 72, 79–95.
Ulanowicz, R. E., Goerner, S. J., Lietaer, B., Gomez, R. 2009. Quantifying sustainability: Resilience, efficiency and the return of information theory. Ecological complexity, 6(1), 27-36.
Paper abstracts must be maximum 300 words, excluding references. They should articulate: the research objectives or questions being addressed; the conceptual or theoretical perspectives informing the work; where appropriate, the methodology utilized; and the contribution of the paper to knowledge in light of the conference themes.
Optional full paper submission for consideration in best paper awards is due no later than 31st July 2019.
A maximum of two abstracts may be submitted per presenter (joint papers to be presented by co-authors will also be considered).
All paper abstracts must be submitted to firstname.lastname@example.org. On abstract submission please ensure you advise the conference stream.
Panel proposals Panel proposals must be maximum 400 words, excluding references. They should include: the panel purpose and its relationship to the nominated conference stream; details of (minimum) three and (maximum) four papers and paper presenters to be included in the panel; and the expected contribution to the panel. All panel proposals must be submitted to email@example.com
Best Paper Competition
To be eligible for the Best Paper awards you will need to submit a full paper by July 31st. Papers should be submitted to firstname.lastname@example.org
Article files should be provided in Microsoft Word format in font 12 with double spacing. Articles should be between 6500 and 9500 words in length with a maximum 300 word abstract. This includes all text including references and appendices. You should provide a title page with details of authors. References to other publications must be in Harvard style and carefully checked for completeness, accuracy and consistency.
• All tables and figures/diagrams should be included in the text
• Selected full papers will be fast-tracked for publication in Special Editions of: the Journal of Social Entrepreneurship and Social Enterprise Journal
Indicative deadlines Abstract and panel proposals submission: Closes 28th February 2019 Decision on submissions: Notification by 31st March 2019 Full papers submitted for consideration in best paper awards due: 31st July 2019
Enquiries about conference administration and technical issues related to online submission should be directed to the conference administration team at email@example.com